Selenium WebDriver Latest Job Interview Questions With Answers Part-3

11 : Can you tell me the syntax to open/launch Firefox browser In WebDriver?
Answer : We can open new Mozilla Firefox browser Instance using bellow given syntax.

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();


12 : What Is XPath and what Is use of It In WebDriver?

Answer : In Selenium WebDriver, XPath is used to locate the elements. Using XPath, We can navigate through elements and attributes In an XML document to locate webpage elements like buttons, text box, links, Images etc..

13 : Which tool you are using to find the XPath of any element?
Answer : I am using Mozilla Firefox AddOns FireBug and FirePath to find the XPath of web elements.


14 : What is the difference between absolute XPath and relative XPath?
Answer :

Absolute XPath : Absolute XPath Is the full path starting from root node and ends with desired descendant element’s node. It will start using single forward slash(/) as bellow.

Example Of Absolute XPath : 


Above XPath Is absolute XPath of calc result box given on THIS PAGE. It starts top node html and ends with input node.

Relative XPath : Instead of starting from root node, Relative XPath starts from any In between node or current element’s node(last node of element). It will start using double forward slash(//) as bellow.
Example Of Relative XPath : 


Above XPath Is relative XPath of same calc result box given on THIS PAGE.

15 : How To Handle Dynamic Changing IDs In XPath. 
Example : //div[@id=’post-body-3647323225296998740′]/div[1]/form[1]/input[1]
In this XPath “3647323225296998740″ Is changing every time when reloading the page. How to handle this situation?

Answer : There are many different alternatives In such case.

Alternative 1 : Look for any other attribute which Is not changing every time In that div node like name, class etc. So If this div node has class attribute then we can write xpath as bellow.

//div[@class='post-body entry-content']/div[1]/form[1]/input[1]

Alternative 2 : You can use absolute xpath(full xpath) where you not need to give any attribute names In xpath.


Alternative 3 : Use starts-with function. In this xpath’s ID attribute, “post-body-” part remain same every time. So you can use xpath as bellow.


Alternative 4 : Use contains function. Same way you can use contains function as bellow.


WebDriver Automation Testing Interview Questions And Answers- Part 2

6 : What are the benefits of automation testing.
Answer : We can get bellow given benefits If automate our testing process.

  • Fast Test Execution : Manual testing process Is time consuming. Automation tests are faster and takes less time to execute tests compared to manual test execution.
  • Re-usability Of Test Cases : You need to prepare automation test cases only one time. Then you can use same test cases for all upcoming version release of software application. However you need to modify your test cases If there Is any flow change of business logic changes In software. But It Is less time consuming.
  • Testing Cost Reduction : You have to put human efforts only one time to automate your test process. Latter on automation tool will work for you at place of human resource.
  • Better Test Coverage In Each Version Release: You have to Implement test scenarios only once In your automation test cases. Latter on you can execute same test cases In all upcoming release. So each scenarios will be tested In every version release.
  • Easy For Compatibility Testing : It Is easy to run same tests In combination of different OS and browser environments using automation tools.
7 : Does Selenium WebDriver Support Record And Playback Facility?
Answer : No. WebDriver do not have any record and playback facility. But you can record your tests In one of the selenium version called Selenium IDE and then you can export your recorded tests In webdriver compatible format as per your preferred language.

You can VIEW MORE TUTORIALS on selenium IDE or @ PART 1 andPART 2 for more details.

8 : Which Operating systems support Selenium WebDriver?
Answer : At present, Mainly bellow given operating systems support Selenium WebDriver.

  • Windows – Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 8.1
  • Apple OS X
  • Linux – Ubuntu. Other versions of linux should support too.
9 : Selenium WebDriver Is Paid Or Open Source Tool? Why you prefer to use It? 
Answer : All versions of selenium tool are open source. You can use any version of selenium In free of charge.

I choose to use It because

  • Open Source.
  • It has multi-browser support.
  • Multi-OS support.
  • Multi types of locators support. So If one not works, We can use another type.
  • Web as well mobile application testing support.
  • Many testers are using selenium WebDriver to automate their testing process. So getting solution of any complex Issue very easily on Internet.
  • It Is extendable and flexible.
  • Continues support from WebDriver’s development team to Improve the API and resolve current Issues.

10 : Which OpenSource Framework Is Supported In WebDriver With Java?
Answer : Bellow given 2 java frameworks are supported by selenium WebDriver.

  • JUnit
  • TestNG
You can find TestNG Tutorials links on THIS PAGE.

Selenium Generic Questions and Answers

Question 1:

What is Selenium?


Selenium is a browser automation tool which lets you automated operations like – type, click, and selection from a drop down of a web page.

Question 2:

How is Selenium different from commercial browser automation tools?


Selenium is a library which is available in a gamut of languages i.e. java, C#, python, ruby, php etc while most commercial tools are limited in their capabilities of being able to use just one language. More over many of those tools have their own proprietary language which is of little use outside the domain of those tools. Most commercial tools focus on record and replay while Selenium emphasis on using Selenium IDE (Selenium record and replay) tool only to get acquainted with Selenium working and then move on to more mature Selenium libraries like Remote control (Selenium 1.0) and Web Driver (Selenium 2.0).

Though most commercial tools have built in capabilities of test reporting, error recovery mechanisms and Selenium does not provide any such features by default. But given the rich set of languages available with Selenium it very easy to emulate such features.


What are the set of tools available with Selenium?


Selenium has four set of tools – Selenium IDE, Selenium 1.0 (Selenium RC), Selenium 2.0 (WebDriver) and Selenium Grid. Selenium Core is another tool but since it is available as part of Selenium IDE as well as Selenium 1.0, it is not used in isolation.

Question 4:

Which Selenium Tool should I use?


It entirely boils down to where you stand today in terms of using Selenium. If you are entirely new to Selenium then you should begin with Selenium IDE to learn Selenium location strategies and then move to Selenium 2 as it is the most stable Selenium library and future of Selenium. Use Selenium Grid when you want to distribute your test across multiple devices. If you are already using Selenium 1.0 than you should begin to migrate your test scripts to Selenium 2.0

Question 5:

What is Selenium IDE?


Selenium IDE is a firefox plug-in which is (by and large) used to record and replay test is firefox browser. Selenium IDE can be used only with firefox browser.

Question 6:

Which language is used in Selenium IDE?


Selenium IDE uses html sort of language called Selenese. Though other languages (java, c#, php etc) cannot be used with Selenium IDE, Selenium IDE lets you convert test in these languages so that they could be used with Selenium 1.0 or Selenium 2.0

Question 7:

What is Selenium 1.0?


Selenium 1.0 or Selenium Remote Control (popularly known as Selenium RC) is library available in wide variety of languages. The primary reason of advent of Selenium RC was incapability of Selenium IDE to execute tests in browser other than Selenium IDE and the programmatical limitations of language Selenese used in Selenium IDE.

Question 8:

What is Selenium 2.0?


Selenium 2.0 also known as WebDriver is the latest offering of Selenium. It provides

  • better API than Selenium 1.0
  • does not suffer from java script security restriction which Selenium 1.0 does
  • supports more UI complicated UI operations like drag and drop

Question 9:

What are the element locators available with Selenium which could be used to locate elements on web page?


There are mainly 4 locators used with Selenium –

  • html id
  • html name
  • XPath locator and
  • Css locators

Question 10:

What is Selenium Grid?


Selenium grid lets you distribute your tests on multiple machines and all of them at the same time. Hence you can execute test on IE on Windows and Safari on Mac machine using the same test script (well, almost always). This greatly helps in reducing the time of test execution and provides quick feedback to stack holders.
Selenium IDE Questions

Question 11:

What are two modes of views in Selenium IDE?


Selenium IDE can be opened either in side bar (View > Side bar > Selenium IDE) or as a pop up window (Tools > Selenium IDE). While using Selenium IDE in browser side bar it cannot record user operations in a pop up window opened by application.

Question 12:

Can I control the speed and pause test execution in Selenium IDE?


Selenium IDE provides a slider with Slow and Fast pointers to control the speed of execution.

Question 13:

Where do I see the results of Test Execution in Selenium IDE?


Result of test execution can be views in log window in Selenium IDE –

Question 14:

Where do I see the description of commands used in Selenium IDE?


Commands of description can be seen in Reference section –

Question 15:

Can I build test suite using Selenium IDE?


Yes, you can first record individual test cases and then group all of them in a test suite. Following this entire test suite could be executed instead of executing individual tests.

Question 16:

What verification points are available with Selenium?


There are largely three type of verification points available with Selenium –

  • Check for page title
  • Check for certain text
  • Check for certain element (text box, drop down, table etc)

Question 17:

I see two types of check with Selenium – verification and assertion, what’s the difference between tow?


  • A verification check lets test execution continue even in the wake of failure with check, while assertion stops the test execution. Consider an example of checking text on page, you may like to use verification point and let test execution continue even if text is not present. But for a login page, you would like to add assertion for presence of text box login as it does not make sense continuing with test execution if login text box is not present.

Question 18:

I don’t see check points added to my tests while using Selenium IDEL, how do I get them added to my tests?


You need to use context menu to add check points to your Selenium IDE tests –

Question 19:

How do I edit tests in Selenium IDE?


There are two ways to edit tests in Selenium IDE; one is the table view while other looking into the source code of recorded commands –

Question 20:

What is syntax of command used in Selenium?


There are three entities associated with a command –

  • Name of Command
  • Element Locator (also known as Target)
  • Value (required when using echo, wait etc)

Question 21:

There are tons of Selenium Command, am I going to use all of them


This entirely boils down to operations you are carrying out with Selenium. Though you would definitely be using following Selenium Commands more often –

  • Open: opens a web page.
  • click/clickAndWait: click on an element and waits for a new page to load.
  • Select: Selects a value from a drop down value.
  • verifyTitle/assertTitle: verifies/asserts page title.
  • verify/assert ElementPresent: verifies/asserts presence of element, in the page.
  • verify/assert TextPresent verifies/asserts  expected text is somewhere on the page.

Question 22:

How do I use html id and name while using Selenium IDE


Html id and name can be used as it is in selenium IDE. For example Google search box has name – “q” and id – “list-b” and they can be used as target in selenium IDE –

Question 23:

What is XPath? When would I have to use XPath in Selenium IDE?


XPath is a way to navigate in xml document and this can be used to identify elements in a web page. You may have to use XPath when there is no name/id associated with element on page or only partial part of name/ide is constant.

Direct child is denoted with – /

Relative child is denoted with – //

Id, class, names can also be used with XPath –

  • //input[@name=’q’]
  • //input[@id=’lst-ib’]
  • //input[@class=’lst’]

If only part of id/name/class is constant than “contains” can be used as –

  • //input[contains(@id,’lst-ib’)]

Question 24:

What is CSS location strategy in Selenium?


CSS location strategy can be used with Selenium to locate elements, it works using cascade style sheet location methods in which –

Direct child is denoted with – (a space)

Relative child is denoted with – >

Id, class, names can also be used with XPath –

  • css=input[name=’q’]
  • css=input[id=’lst-ib’] or input#lst-ib
  • css=input[class=’lst’] or input.lst

If only part of id/name/class is constant than “contains” can be used as –

  • css=input[id*=’ lst-ib ‘)]

Element location strategy using inner text

  • css = a:contains(‘log out’)

Question 25:

There is id, name, XPath, CSS locator, which one should I use?


If there are constant name/id available than they should be used instead of XPath and CSS locators. If not then css locators should be given preference as their evaluation is faster than XPath in most modern browsers.

Question 26:

I want to generate random numbers, dates as my test data, how do I do this in Selenium IDE?


This can be achieved by executing java script in Selenium. Java script can be executed using following syntax –




And for date –



javascript{new Date()}

Question 27:

Can I store result of an evaluation and use it later in my test?


You can use “store” command to achieve this. You can save result of an evaluation in a variable and use it later in your Selenium IDE script. For example we can store value from a text box as following, and later use it to type it in another text box –







Question 28:

I have stored result of an evaluation; can I print it in IDE to check its value?


You can use echo command as following to check the stored value in Selenium IDE –






Question 29:

Can I handle java script alert using Selenium?


You could use verify/assertAlert to check presence of alert on page. Since selenium cannot click on “Ok” button on js alert window, the alert itself does not appear on page when this check is carried out.

Question 30:

Selenium has recorded my test using XPath, how do I change them to css locator?


You can use drop down available next to Find in Selenium to change element locator used by Selenium –

Question 31:

I have written my own element locator, how do I test it?


You can use Find button of Selenium IDE to test your locator. Once you click on it, you would see element being highlighted on screen provided your element locator is right Else one error message would be displayed in log window.

Question 32:

I have written one js extension; can I plug it in Selenium and use it?


You could specify you js extension in “Options” window of Selenium IDE –

Question 33:

How do I convert my Selenium IDE tests from Selenese to another language?


You could use Format option of Selenium IDE to convert tests in another programming language –

Question 34:

I have converted my Selenium IDE tests to java but I am not able to execute themL, execution options as well as Table tab of Selenium IDE is disabledLL


This is because Selenium IDE does not support execution of test in any other language than Selenese (language of Selenium IDE). You can convert Selenium IDE in a language of your choice and then use Selenium 1.0 to execute these tests in that language.

Question 35:

I want to use only Selenese as my test script language but still want to execute tests in other browsers, how do I do that?


You can execute you Selenese test in another browser by specifying the “-htmlSuite” followed by path of your Selenese suite while starting the Selenium Server. Selenium Server would be covered in details in question about Selenium RC.

Question 36:

I have added one command in middle of list of commands, how do I test only this new command?


You can double click on newly added command and Selenium IDE would execute only that command in browser.

Question 37:

Can I make Selenium IDE tests begin test execution from a certain command and not from the very first command?


You could set a command as “start” command from context menu. When a command is set as start command then a small green symbol appears before command. Same context menu can be used to toggle this optio

Question 38:

Are there other tools available outside Selenium IDE to help me tests my element locators


You could XPath checker –  to test you XPath locators and Firefinder (a firebug add on) to test you css locators –

Firefinder can also be used to test XPath locators.

Question 39:

What is upcoming advancement in Selenium IDE?


The latest advancement in Selenium IDE would be to have capabilities of converting Selenium IDE tests in Webdriver (Selenium 2.0) options. This would help generating quick and dirty tests for Selenium 2.0

Question 40:

How can I use looping option (flow control) is Selenium IDE


Selenese does not provide support for looping, but there is extension which could be used to achieve same. This extension can be download from here –

This extension can be added under “Selenium IDE Extension” section to use loop feature in Selenium IDE.

Question 41:

Can I use screen coordinate while using click command? I want to click at specific part of my element.


You would need to use clickAT command to achieve. clickAt command accepts element locator and x, y coordinates as arguments –

clickAt(locator, coordString)

Question 42:

How do I verify presence of drop down options using Selenium?


Use assertSelectOptions as following to check options in a drop down list –


Question 43:

Can I get data from a specific html table cell using Selenium IDE?


Use storeTable command to get data from a specific cell in an html table, following example store text from cell 0,4 from an html table –




Question 44:

I want to make Selenium IDE record and display css locator followed by other locators, is it possible to give high priority to css locator in Selenium IDE?


You can change default behavior of Selenium IDE > element locator preference by crating js file with following–

LocatorBuilders.order = [‘css:name’, ‘css:id’, ‘id’, ‘link’, ‘name’, ‘xpath:attributes’];

And add this file under “Selenium IDE Extension” under Selenium Options.

Question 45:

My application has dynamic alerts which don’t always appear, how do I handle them?


If you want to simulate clicking “ok “ on alert than use – chooseOkOnNextConfirmation and if you want to simulate clicking “cancel” on alert than use – chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation ( )

Question 46:

Can I right click on a locator?


You can use command – contextMenu ( locator) to simulate right click on an element in web page.

Question 47:

How do I capture screen shot of page using Selenium IDE?


Use command – captureEntirePageScreenshot to take screen shot of page.

Question 48:

I want to pause my test execution after certain command.


Use pause command which takes time in milliseconds and would pause test execution for specified time – pause ( waitTime )

Question 49:

I used open command to launch my page, but I encountered time out errorL


This happens because open commands waits for only 30 seconds for page to load. If you application takes more than 30 sec then you can use “setTimeout ( timeout )” to make selenium IDE wait for specified time, before proceeding with test execution.

Question 50:

What’s the difference between type and typeKeys commands?


type command simulates enter operations at one go while typeKeys simulates keystroke key by key.

typeKeys could be used when typing data in text box which bring options (like Google suggestion list) because such operation are not usually simulated using type command.

Selenium RC (Selenium 1.0) Questions

Question 51:

What is Selenium RC (also known as Selenium 1.0)?


Selenium RC is an offering from SeleniumHQ which tries to overcome following draw backs of Selenium IDE –

  • Able to execute tests only with Firefox
  • Not able to use full-fledged programming language and being limited to Selenese

Question 52:

What are the main components of Selenium RC?


Selenium RC has two primary components –

  • Client libraries which let you writes tests in language of your preference i.e. java, C#, perl, php etc
  • Selenium sever which acts as a proxy between browser and application under test (aut)

Question 53:

Why do I need Selenium Server?


Selenium uses java script to drives tests on a browser; Selenium injects its own js to the response which is returned from aut. But there is a java script security restriction (same origin policy) which lets you modify html of page using js only if js also originates from the same domain as html. This security restriction is of utmost important but spoils the working of Selenium. This is where Selenium server comes to play an important role.

Selenium server stands between aut and browser and injects selenium js to the response received from aut and then it is delivered to broswer. Hence browser believes that entire response was delivered from aut.

Question 54:

What is Selenium core? I have never used it!!!


Selenium core is the core js engine of Selenium which executes tests on browser, but because of same origin policy it needs to be deployed on app server itself, which is not always feasible. Hence Selenium core is not used in isolation. Selenium IDE as well as Selenium RC use Selenium core to drive tests while over coming same origin policy. In case of Selenium IDE tests are run in context of browser hence it is not hindered by same origin policy and with Selenium RC, Selenium Server over comes same origin policy.

Question 55:

Where is executable for Selenium RC, how do I install it?


Installation is a misnomer for Selenium RC. You don’t install Selenium RC you only add client libraries to you project. For example in case of java you add client driver and Selenium server jars in Eclipse or IntelliJ which are java editors.

Question 56:

I have downloaded Selenium Server and Client libraries, how do I start Selenium Server?


To start Selenium Server, you need to navigate to installation directory of Selenium server and execute following command –

Java -jar .jar

This will start Selenium server at port 4444 by default.

Notice that you need to have java version 1.5 or higher available on your system to be able to use Selenium server.

Question 57:

On my machine port 4444 is not freeL . How do Use another port?


You can specify port while running the selenium server as –

Java -jar .jar –port 5555

Question 58:

I am new to programming; can Selenium generate sample code from my Selenese scripts?


You can first record tests in Selenium IDE and then use format option to convert them in a language of your choice.

Question 59:

Can I start Selenium server from my program instead of command line


If you are using java then you can start Selenium server using SeleniumServer class. For this you need to instantiate SeleniumServer and then call start() method on it.

seleniumServer = new SeleniumServer();


Question 60:

And how do I start the browser?


While using java you need to create instance of DefaultSelenium class and pass it four parameters –

selenium = new DefaultSelenium(serverHost, serverPort, browser, appURL);


Herein you need to pass,

host where Selenium server is running,

port of Selenium server,

browser where tests are to be executed and

application URL

Question 61:

I am not using java to program my tests, do I still have to install java on my system?


Yes, since Selenium server is written in java you need java to be installed on your system to be able to use it. Even though you might not be using java to program your tests.

Question 62:

What are the browsers offering from Selenium?


Following browsers could be used with Selenium –


















Here pi and proxy stand for proxy injection mode of Selenium server

Question 63:

During execution of tests I see two browser windows; one my test application another window shows commands being executed. Can I limit it to just one window?


Yes you can instruct Selenium Server to launch just one window. To do so you must specify –singleWindow while starting the Selenium server as –

Java -jar .jar –singleWindow

Question 64:

My tests usually time outL. Can I specify bigger time out?


This usually happens while using open method with Selenium. One way to overcome this is to use setTimeOut method in your test script another way is to specify time out while starting Selenium server as following –

Java -jar .jar –timeout

Question 65:

My system is behind corporate network, how do I specify my corporate proxy?


You can specify your corporate proxy as following while starting Selenium Server –

java -jar .jar -Dhttp.proxyHost= -Dhttp.proxyPort= -Dhttp.proxyUser= -Dhttp.proxyPassword=

Question 66:

I am switching domains in my test scripts. I move from “” to “” and my tests encounter permission denied errorL


Changing domains is also a security restriction from java script. To overcome this you should start you Selenium server in proxy injection mode as –

java -jar .jar –proxyInjectionMode

Now Selenium server would act as proxy server for all the content going to test application

Question 67:

Can I execute my Selenese tests in another browser using Selenium server? I want to use only Selenese script my tests but still want to execute my test in non firefox browsers


Yes you can. To do so you need to specify following parameters while starting Selenium server –


Test domain

Path to html suite (you Selenese tests) and

Path to result

java -jar <>.jar -htmlSuite

Question 68:

Can I log more options during test execution?


If you want to log browser side option during test execution then you should start Selenium server as following –

java -jar <>.jar –browserSideLog

Question 69:

Can I use Selenium RC on my UNIX/Mac also?


You can use Selenium RC on any system which is capable I running Java. Hence you can use it on RC and UNIX machines also

Question 70:

I want to test my scripts on new experimental browser, how do I do that?


You can specify *custom followed by path to browser to execute your tests on any browser while starting Selenium server


Question 71:

I executed my tests cases but where is the test report?


Selenium RC itself does not provide any mechanism for test reporting. Test reporting is driven from the framework you use for Selenium. For example with java client driver of Selenium –

  • if you are using JUnit then you can use ant plug-in of JUnit to generate test report
  • if you are using TestNG then TestNG generates reports for you

Same reporting option is available with PHP unit and other client libraries you are using.

Question 72:

How do I use recovery scenarios with Selenium? I used to use them with QTP.


Power of recovery scenarios lies with the programming language you use. If you are using java then you can use Exception handling to overcome same. For example if you are reading data from a file and file is not available then you should keep you code statements in “try catch” block so that test execution could continue even in the wake of errors. Such mechanism entirely boils down the errors you want to recover from, while being able to continue with test execution.

Question 73:

How do I iterate through options in my test script.


You can use loop features of the programming language, for example you can use “for” loop in java as following to type different test data in a text box –

// test data collection in an array

String[] testData = {“test1”, “test2”, “test3”};

// iterate through each test data

for (String s : testData) {

selenium.type(“elementLocator”, testData);


Question 74:

Can I execute java script from my tests? I want to count number of images on my page.


You can use method getEval() to evaluate java script. For example if you want to count number of images then you can pass following dom statement to getEval() as following –


Or to get All anchor objects from a page


Question 75:

Is there a way for me to know all available options when I start Selenium Server?


If you want to see all options available while starting Selenium server then you should use option “-h” while starting Selenium server –

Java –jar .jar –h

It would display you all the options which you can use while starting the Selenium server.

Question 76:

I have created my own firefox profile; can I execute my test scripts on it


You may like to create your own firefox profile because Selenium always created a clean firefox profile while executing the tests and none of your FF settings and plug-in are considered with this clean profile. If you want to execute tests on FF with your settings then you should create custom profile for FF.

To be able to execute tests on a custom firefox profile you should specify its path while starting Selenium server. For example if your new profile is stored at “awesome location” in your directory then you should start Selenium server as following –

Java –jar .jar -firefoxProfileTemplate   “awesome location”

Question 77:

How do I capture server side log from Selenium server?


Start your Selenium Server as following –

java -jar .jar -log selenium.log

And Selenium would start logging server side info, i.e.

20:44:25 DEBUG [12] org.openqa.selenium.server.SeleniumDriverResourceHandler –

Browser 12345/:top frame1 posted START NEW

Question 78:

What are Heightened Privileges Browsers?


Firefox and IE have browser modes which are not restricted by java script’s same origin policy. These browsers are known as browsers with elevated security privileges. In case of Firefox it is known as chrome (It’s not the Google browser) and in case of IE it is known as iehta

Question 79:

My application has lots of pop up window, how do I work with them?


You need to know the Window ID of pop window to be able to work with them.

First you need to bring control on pop up window; execute selenium commands there, close the pop up window and then bring control back to main window. Consider following example where click on an image brings a pop up window –

// click on image brings pop up window“css=img”);

// wait for pop up window identified using anchor target “ss

selenium.waitForPopUp(“ss”, getWaitPeriod());


// Some more operations on popup window

// Close the pop up window and Select the main application window

// Main window is selected by adding null as argument



// continue with usual operation J

Question 80:

While trying to execute my tests with firefox I encountered following error – “Firefox Refused Shutdown While Preparing a Profile”. How do I solve it?


This message simply means that Selenium is not able to launch FF browser as it is already running on your system. To overcome this you should close all running instances of FF browser.

You should also check your system process if there is any hidden FF profile running which is not visible on screen. You should kill all FF processes and following this your tests should run smooth

Question 80:

While trying to execute my tests with firefox I encountered following error – “Firefox Refused Shutdown While Preparing a Profile”. How do I solve it?


This message simply means that Selenium is not able to launch FF browser as it is already running on your system. To overcome this you should close all running instances of FF browser.

You should also check your system process if there is any hidden FF profile running which is not visible on screen. You should kill all FF processes and following this your tests should run smooth

Question 81:

My application uses Ajax heavily how do I use Selenium RC to work with Ajax operations?


Ajax operations don’t reload a page like normal form submission but they make http requests behind the scene. You cannot use waitForPageToLoad for such operations and instead should use conditional wait for change in state of application. This could as well mean waiting for presence of an element before continuing with test operations. Consider following example in which type operation triggers Ajax operation which is followed by conditional wait for presence of a text box –

// type operation brings element “q” on screen without loading the page

selenium.type(“elementLocator”, “testData”);

// conditional wait for element “q”

for (int second = 0;; second++) {

if (second >= 60) fail(“timeout”);

try { if (selenium.isElementPresent(“q”)) break; } catch (Exception e) {}



Question 82:

How do I upload a file using Selenium? I need to upload a word file during test execution.


If you are using Firefox then you can use “type” command to type in a File Input box of upload file. But type operation does not work with IE and you would have to use “Robot” class in java to work make file upload work.

Question 83:

Why do I get “permission denied” error during execution of Selenium tests?


The primary reason of permission denied error is same origin policy restriction from java script. To overcome this error you can use browsers with elevated security privileges. In case of Firefox you should use *chrome and in case of IE you should use *iehta as browser for working with Selenium.

Question 84:

I am not able to use “style” attribute to locate element with IE browserL


This is because IE expects attribute values to be in caps while other browsers expect it to be lower case letters. Hence

//tr[@style=”background-color:yellow”] works with other browsers

//tr[@style=”BACKGROUND-COLOUR:yellow”] works with IE

Question 85:

Are there any technical limitations while using Selenium RC?


Besides notorious “same origin policy” restriction from js, Selenium is also restricted from exercising anything which is outside browser. For example you cannot click on “Tools” option of your browser by just using Selenium.

Question 86:

But my tests need me to exercise objects outside browser, how do I achieve it?


You can use Robot class in java to achieve this, but it would be dirty solution even if you get through this.

Question 87:

Does Selenium have any offering for mobile browsers?


Selenium 2.0 (WebDriver) provides iPhone as well Android drivers which could be used to drive tests on mobile browsers

Question 88:

How does Selenium RC stand with other commercial tools?


The biggest advantage of Selenium RC is that it is absolutely free and has vast support of languages and browsers (almost always). Selenium lags when it comes to test reporting as Selenium does not have any in built reporting but this can be easily achieved using the programming language you decide to work on with Selenium. A bigger drawback is not being able to exercise objects which are outside browser window, for example clicking on folder on your desktop.

Question 89:

How does Selenium RC stand with other commercial tools?


The biggest advantage of Selenium RC is that it is absolutely free and has vast support of languages and browsers (almost always). Selenium lags when it comes to test reporting as Selenium does not have any in built reporting but this can be easily achieved

Question 90:

Can I just use Selenium RC to drive tests on two different browsers on one operating system without using Selenium Grid?


If you are using java client driver of Selenium then java testing framework TestNG lets you achieve this. You can set tests to be executed in parallel using “parallel=test” attribute and define two different tests, each using a different browser. Whole set up would look as  (notice the highlighted sections for browser in test suite)–

xml version=“1.0” encoding=“utf-8”?>

DOCTYPE suite SYSTEM “” &gt;

<suite name=“Test Automation” verbose=“10”>

<parameter name=“serverHost” value=“localhost” />

<parameter name=“appURL” value=;/>

<parameter name=“proxyInjection” value=“false” />

<parameter name=“serverPort” value=“4444”/>

<test name=“Web Test1”>

<parameter name=”browser” value=”*chrome” />

<parameter name=“m” value=“1”>parameter>

<classes><class name=“com.core.tests.TestClass1”>class>classes>


<test name=“Web Test2”>

<parameter name=”browser” value=”*iehta” />

<parameter name=“m” value=“2”>parameter>

<classes><class name=“com.core.tests.TestClass1”>class>classes>



Selenium Grid Questions

Question 91:

How do I cut down text execution time for my selenium tests? I want to execute my tests on a combination of different machines and browsers.


Selenium grid is your friendJ. Selenium grid lets you distribute tests across browsers and machines of your choice.

Question 92:

How does Selenium grid works?


Selenium grid uses combination of Selenium RC servers to execute tests in multiple browsers on different machine. Herein one Selenium RC server works as hub while other RC servers work as slaves, which could be controlled by hub. Whenever there is a request for a specific configuration for test execution then hub looks for a free RC slave server and if available then test execution begins on it. Once test execution is over then RC slave server would be available for next set of test execution.

Question 93:

Can you show me one diagram which describes functionality of Selenium grid?


In the following diagram Selenium hub is controlling three Selenium RC servers which are running for configurations –

  • IE on Windows
  • FF on Linux
  • FF on windows

Question 94:

Which jar files are needed to works with Selenium GRID?


You need to download and add following jar files to your Selenium set up to be able to work with Selenium. These jar files are –

  • selenium-grid-remote-control-standalone-.jar
  • selenium-grid-hub-standalone-.jar
  • selenium-grid-tools-standalone-.jar

Question 95:

How do I start Selenium Grid hub from my machine?


You should have “ant” set up on your system to be able to work with Grid. Once you have downloaded Selenium Grid, navigate to its distribution directory and execute following command –

ant launch-hub

This would start grid hub on port 4444 locally. You can verify this by navigating to following URL –             http://localhost:4444/console

Question 96:

How do I start Selenium Grid Slave Server from my system?


Navigate to download directory of Selenium gird and execute following command –

ant launch-remote-control

This would launch remote control server at port 555. At this point if you navigate to http://localhost:4444/console then you would see this remote control listed under “Available Remote Controls”

Question 97:

How do I start Selenium grid slave on a different port than 5555?


You can use option “-Dport” followed by port number to start grid slave on a specific port.

ant -Dport=1111 launch-remote-control

ant -Dport=2222 launch-remote-control

Question 98:

How do I start grid RC slaves on a different system than my local host so than hub could control and contact a specific configuration?


You should specify following configuration while starting RC slave –

ant -Dport= -Dhost= -DhubURL= launch-remote-control

Herein “hostname” is the host where RC slave is running and “hub url” is URL of machine where grid hub is running.

Question 99:

How do I specify an environment while starting grid slave machine?


You could specify an environment using “-Denvironment” while starting a slave machine.

ant -Denvironment=”Safari on Mac” launch-remote-control

Herein Safari on Mac is the environment which would be used to recognize configuration of RC slave.

Question 100:

How do I use machine specific configuration in my Selenium tests?


You could specify machine specific configuration while instantiating Selenium as –

Selenium = new DefaultSelenium(“localhost”, 4444, **’Safari on Mac’**, ‘;);

And then you use this selenium instance to carryout operation on your web application.

Question 101:

But how does my tests know that ‘Safari on Mac’ mean a safari browser? How does mapping between names like ‘Safari on Mac’ and original browser options available in Selenium work?


Selenium grid uses a file called “grid_configuration.yml” which defines configurations of all browsers. You would have to add this in your project. This file looks like –

Question 102:

How does Selenium grid hub keeps in touch with RC slave machine?


Selenium grid hub keeps polling all RC slaves at predefined time to make sure they are available for testing. If not then Selenium hub disconnect any unavailable RC slaves and makes it clear that any RC slave is not available for testing. The deciding parameter is called – “remoteControlPollingIntervalInSeconds” and is defined in “grid_configuration.yml” file.

Question 103:

My RC becomes unresponsive at times and my Selenium grid hub keeps waiting for RC slave to respondL. How do I let hub know to give up on RC slave after a certain time?


You could state Selenium grid hub to wait for RC slave for a predefined time, and if RC slave does not responds with in this time then hub disconnects test execution on that slave. This parameter is called “sessionMaxIdleTimeInSeconds” and this parameter can be defined in “grid_configuration.yml” file.

Question 104:

What if my hub goes down while Selenium RC slaves are up and running?


There is one heart beat mechanism from RC slave to hub which is reciprocal to mechanism used by hub to slave machines. RC slaves use a parameter called “hubPollerIntervalInSeconds” to keep track of running grid hub. This parameter can be defined while starting the hub as –

ant -DhubPollerIntervalInSeconds= launch-hub

if hub does not respond within this time then RC slaves deregister themselves from hub.

Question 105:

Can Selenium grid be used for performance testing?


Selenium grid is for functional testing of application across different configuration. Performance testing is usually not carried out on actual devices but on a simulated http request/response mechanism. If you want to use Selenium Grid for performance testing then you would have to invest heavily on s/w and h/w infrastructure.

Question 106:

Are there additional logs available while working with Selenium grid?


You can find Selenium grid hub logs in “log/hub.log” and Remote Control logs in “log/rc-*.log” folder.

Question 107:

There are various options available while starting a Selenium server, how do I use them with Selenium grid?


You can use “seleniumArgs” Java property while launching the remote control and specify any of the option which you would with normal Selenium set up. For example you can run Selenium RC slave in single window mode using following command –

ant -DseleniumArgs=”-singleWindow -debug” launch-remote-control

Question 108:

I see duplicate entries in my hub console, same RC slave listed more than once :-O


This is because you are killing RC slave very ferociously. For example you if you just close the console without actually ending the process in more civil manner. To avoid this you should kill all RC slaves in more civil manner. If you encounter this error then you should restart Selenium hub and RC slaves would them register themselves to hub.

Question 109:

How do I specify my corporate proxy while starting Selenium grid hub or slave machines?


You could use setting for “http.proxyHost” abd “http.proxyPort” while starting hub and remote control machines –

ant -Dhttp.proxyHost= -Dhttp.proxyPort= launch-hub

ant -Dhttp.proxyHost= -Dhttp.proxyPort= launch-remote-control

Question 110:

How do I use Selenium Grid while using Java, .Net or Ruby


With java you can take advantage of parallel testing capabilities of TestNG to drive your Selenium grid tests

With .Net you can use “Gallio” to execute your tests in parallel

With Ruby you can use “DeepTest” to distribute your tests

Question 111:

How about the test report when I use Selenium grid for test execution?


This entirely boils down to framework you use to write your tests. For example in case of java, TestNG reports should suffice.

Web Driver (Selenium 2.0) Questions

Question 112:

What is Selenium 2.0? I have heard this buzz word many times.


Selenium 2.0 is consolidation of two web testing tools – Selenium RC and WebDriver, which claims to give best of both words – Selenium and WebDriver. Selenium 2.0 was officially released only of late.

Question 113:

Why are two tools being combined as Selenium 2.0, what’s the gain?


Selenium 2.0 promises to give much cleaner API then Selenium RC and at the same time not being restricted by java script Security restriction like same origin policy, which have been haunting Selenium from long. Selenium 2.0 also does not warrant you to use Selenium Server.

Question 114:

So everyone is going to use Selenium 2.0?


Well no, for example if you are using Selenium Perl client driver than there is no similar offering from Selenium 2.0 and you would have to stick to Selenium 1.0 till there is similar library available for Selenium 2.0

Question 115:

So how do I specify my browser configurations with Selenium 2.0?


Selenium 2.0 offers following browser/mobile configuration –

  • AndroidDriver,
  • ChromeDriver,
  • EventFiringWebDriver,
  • FirefoxDriver,
  • HtmlUnitDriver,
  • InternetExplorerDriver,
  • IPhoneDriver,
  • IPhoneSimulatorDriver,
  • RemoteWebDriver

And all of them have been implemented from interface WebDriver. To be able to use any of these drivers you need to instantiate their corresponding class.

Question 116:

How is Selenium 2.0 configuration different than Selenium 1.0?


In case of Selenium 1.0 you need Selenium jar file pertaining to one library for example in case of java you need java client driver and also Selenium server jar file. While with Selenium 2.0 you need language binding (i.e. java, C# etc) and Selenium server jar if you are using Remote Control or Remote WebDriver.

Question 117:

Can you show me one code example of setting Selenium 2.0?


Here is java example of initializing firefox driver and using Google Search engine –

protected WebDriver webDriver;


public void startDriver(){

webDriver = new FirefoxDriver();

// Get Google search page and perform search on term “Test”




Question 118:

Which web driver implementation is fastest?


HTMLUnitDriver. Simple reason is HTMLUnitDriver does not execute tests on browser but plain http request – response which is far quick than launching a browser and executing tests. But then you may like to execute tests on a real browser than something running behind the scenes

Question 119:

What all different element locators are available with Selenium 2.0?


Selenium 2.0 uses same set of locators which are used by Selenium 1.0 – id, name, css, XPath but how Selenium 2.0 accesses them is different. In case of Selenium 1.0 you don’t have to specify a different method for each locator while in case of Selenium 2.0 there is a different method available to use a different element locator. Selenium 2.0 uses following method to access elements with id, name, css and XPath locator –





Question 120:

How do I submit a form using Selenium?


You can use “submit” method on element to submit form –


Alternatively you can use click method on the element which does form submission.

Question 121:

Can I simulate pressing key board keys using Selenium 2.0?


You can use “sendKeys” command to simulate key board keys as –

element.sendKeys(” and some”, Keys.ARROW_UP);

You can also use “sendKeys” to type in text box as –


Question 122:

How do I clear content of a text box in Selenium 2.0


You can use “clear” method on text box element to clear its content –


Question 123:

How do I select a drop down value using Selenium2.0?


To select a drop down value, you first need to get the select element using one of element locator and then you can select element using visible text –

Select selectElement = new Select(driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“cssSelector”)));


Question 124:

What are offering to deal with popup windows while using Selenium 2.0?


You can use “switchTo” window method to switch to a window using window name. There is also one method “getWindowHandles” which could be used to find all Window handles and subsequently bring control on desired window using window handle –


for (String handle : driver.getWindowHandles()) {



Question 125:

How about handling frames using Selenium 2.0?


You can use “switchTo” frame method to bring control on an HTML frame –


You can also use index number to specify a frame –


This would bring control on frame named – “frameName” of the 4th sub frame names “parentFrame”

Question 126:

Can I navigate back and forth in a browser in Selenium 2.0?


You can use Navigate interface to go back and forth in a page. Navigate method of WebDriver interface returns instance of Navigation. Navigate interface has methods to move back, forward as well as to refresh a page –

driver.navigate().forward(); driver.navigate().back(); driver.navigate().refresh();

Question 127:

What is the order of fastest browser implementation for WebDriver?


HTMLUnitDriver is the fastest browser implementation as it does not involves interaction with a browser, This is followed by Firefox driver and then IE driver which is slower than FF driver and runs only on Windows.

Question 128:

Is it possible to use Selenium RC API with Selenium 2.0?


You can emulate Selenium 1.0 API with Selenium 2.0 but not all of Selenium 1.0 methods are supported. To achieve this you need to get Selenium instance from WebDriver and use Selenium methods. Method executions might also be slower while simulating Selenium 1.0 with in Selenium 2.0

Question 129:

Can you show me one example of using Selenium 1.0 in Selenium 2.0?


Code Sample:

// Create web driver instance

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

// App URL

String appUrl = “;;

// Get Selenium instance

Selenium selenium = new WebDriverBackedSelenium(driver, appUrl);

// Tests using selenium;

selenium.type(“name=q”, “testData”);“name=btnG”);

// Get back the WebDriver instance

WebDriver driverInstance = ((WebDriverBackedSelenium) selenium).getUnderlyingWebDriver();

Question 130:

I had support of lots of browsers while using Selenium 1.0 and it seems lacking with Selenium 2.0, for example how do I use < awesome> browser while using Selenium 2.0?


There is a class called Capabilities which lets you inject new Capabilities in WebDriver. This class can be used to set testing browser as Safari –

//Instantiate Capabilities

Capabilities capabilities = new DesiredCapabilities()

//Set browser name

capabilities.setBrowserName(“this awesome browser”);

//Get your browser execution capabilities

CommandExecutor executor = new SeleneseCommandExecutor(“http:localhost:4444/”;, capabilities);

//Setup driver instance with desired Capabilities

WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(executor, capabilities);

Question 131:

Are there any limitations while injecting capabilities in WebDriver to perform tests on a browser which is not supported by WebDriver?


Major limitation of injecting Capabilities is that “fundElement” command may not work as expected. This is because WebDriver uses Selenium Core to make “Capability injection” work which is limited by java script security policies.

Question 132:

Can I change User-Agent while using FF browser? I want to execute my tests with a specific User-Agent setting.


You can create FF profile and add additional Preferences to it. Then this profile could be passed to Firefox driver while creating instance of Firefox –

FirefoxProfile profile = new FirefoxProfile();

profile.addAdditionalPreference(“general.useragent.override”, “User Agent String”);

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(profile);

Question 133:

Is there any difference in XPath implementation in different WebDriver implementations?


Since not all browsers (like IE) have support for native XPath, WebDriver provides its own implementation for XPath for such browsers. In case of HTMLUnitDriver and IEDriver, html tags and attributes names are considered lower cased while in case of FF driver they are considered case in-sensitive.

Question 134:

My application uses ajax highly and my tests are suffering from time outs while using Selenium 2.0L.


You can state WebDriver to implicitly wait for presence of Element if they are not available instantly.  By default this setting is set to 0. Once set, this value stays till the life span of WebDriver object. Following example would wait for 60 seconds before throwing ElementNotFound exception –

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

WebElement element = driver.findElement(“elementID”));

Question 135:

What if I don’t want to use implicit wait and want to wait only for presence of certain elements?


You can use explicit wait in this situation to wait for presence of certain element before continuing with test execution. You can use “WebDriverWait” and “ExpectedCondition” to achieve this –

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

WebElement myDynamicElement = (new WebDriverWait(driver, 60)).until(new ExpectedCondition<WebElement>(){


public WebElement apply(WebDriver d) {

return d.findElement(“myDynamicElement”));


This is going to wait up to 60 seconds before throwing ElementNotFound exception.

Question 136:

What is RemoteWebDriver? When would I have to use it?


RemoteWebDriver is needed when you want to use HTMLUnitDriver. Since HTMLUnitDriver runs in memory, you would not see a browser getting launched –

// Create HTMLUnitDriver instance

WebDriver driver = new HtmlUnitDriver();

// Launch


Question 137:

What all languages available to be used with WebDriver?


Java and C# are on the forefront of WebDriver languages. Support is also available for Python and Ruby. There is also one java script library available for Friefox.

Question 138:

How do I handle java script alert using WebDriver?


WebDriver would support handling js alerts using Alert interface.

// Bring control on already opened alert

Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

// Get the text of the alert or prompt


// Click ok on alert


Question 139:

Could I safely execute multiple instances of WebDriver implementations?


As far as HTMLUnitDriver and FF drivers are concerned, each instance would be independent of other. In case of IE driver there could be only one instance of IE driver running on Windows. If you want to execute more than one instance of IE driver then you should consider using RemoteWebDriver and virtual machines.

Question 140:

Is it possible to interact with hidden elements using WebDriver?


Since WebDriver tries to exercise browser as closely as real users would, hence simple answer is No, But you can use java script execution capabilities to interact with hidden elements.

Question 141:

I have all my tests written in Selenium 1.0 (Selenium RC), why should I migrate to Selenium 2.0 (WebDriver)?


Because –

  • WebDriver has more compact and object oriented API than Selenium 1.0
  • WebDriver simulates user behaviour more closely than Selenium 1.0, for example if a text box is disabled WebDriver would not be able to type text in it while Selenium 1.0 would be
  • WebDriver is supported by Browser vendor themselves i.e. FF, Opera, Chrome etc

Question 142:

My XPath and CSS locators don’t always work with Selenium 2.0, but they used to with Selenium 1.0L.


In case of XPath, it is because WebDriver uses native browser methods unless it is not available. And this cause complex XPath to be broken. In case of Selenium 1.0 css selectors are implemented using Sizzle Library and not all the capabilities like “contains” are available to be used with Selenium 2.0

Question 143:

How do I execute Java Script in Selenium 2.0?


You need to use JavaScriptExecutor to execute java script in Selenium 2.0, For example if you want to find tag name of an element using Selenium 2.0 then you can execute java script as following –

WebElement element = driver.findElement(“elementLocator”));

String name = (String) ((JavascriptExecutordriver).executeScript(

“return arguments[0].tagName”, element);

Question 144:

Why does not my java script execution return any value?


This might happen when you forget to add “return“ keyword while executing java script. Notice the “return” keyword in following statement –

((JavascriptExecutordriver).executeScript(“return window.title;”);

Question 145:

Are there any limitations from operating systems while using WebDriver?


While HTMLUnitDriver, FF Driver and Chrome Driver could be used on all operating systems, IE Driver could be used only with Windows.

Question 146:

Give me architectural overview of WebDriver.


WebDriver tries to simulate real user interaction as much as possible. This is the reason why WebDriver does not have “fireEvent” method and “getText” returns the text as a real user would see it. WebDriver implementation for a browser is driven by the language which is best to driver it. In case of FF best fit languages are Javascript in an XPCOM component and in IE it is C++ using IE automation.  Now the implementation which is available to user is a thin wrapper around the implementation and user need not know about implementation.

Question 147:

What is Remote WebDriver Server?


Remote WebDriver Server has two components – client and server. Client is WebDriver while Server is java servlet. Once you have downloaded selenium-server-standalone-.jar file you can start it from command line as –

java -jar selenium-server-standalone-<version-number>.jar

Question 148:

Is there a way to start Remote WebDriver Server from my code?


First add Remote WebDriver jar in your class path. You also need another server called “Jetty” to use it. You can start sever as following –

WebAppContext context = new WebAppContext();


context.setWar(new File(“.”));


context.addServlet(DriverServlet.class, “/wd/*”);

SelectChannelConnector connector = new SelectChannelConnector();




Question 149:

But what are the advantages of using Remote WebDriver over WebDriver?


You can use Remote WebDriver when –

  • When you want to execute tests on a browser not available to you locally
  • Introduction to extra latency to tests

But there is one disadvantage of using Remote WebDriver that you would need external servlet container.

Question 150:

Can you show me code example of using Remote WebDriver?


// Any driver could be used for test

DesiredCapabilities capabilities = new DesiredCapabilities();

// Enable javascript support


// Get driver handle

WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(capabilities);

// Launch the app


Question 151:

What are the modes of Remote WebDriver


Remote WebDriver has two modes of operations –

Client Mode: This is where language bindings connect to remote instance. FF drive and RemoteWebDriver clients work this way.

Server Mode: In this mode language bindings set up the server. ChromeDriver works this way.

Question 152:

What Design Patterns could be used while using Selenium 2.0?


These three Design Patterns are very popular while writing Selenium 2.0 tests –

  1. Page Objects – which abstracts UI of web page
  2. Domain Specific Language – which tries to write tests which could be understood by a normal user having no technical knowledge
  3. Bot Style Tests – it follows “command-like” test scripting

Question 153:

So do I need to follow these Design patterns while writing my tests?


Not at all, these Design Patterns are considered best practices and you can write you tests without following any of those Design Patterns, or you may follow a Design Pattern which suites your needs most.

Question 154:

Is there a way to enable java script while using HTMLUnitDriver?


Use this –

HtmlUnitDriver driver = new HtmlUnitDriver();


or this –

HtmlUnitDriver driver = new HtmlUnitDriver(true);

Question 155:

Is it possible to emulate a browser with HTMLUnitDriver?


You can emulate browser while using HTMLUnitDriver but it is not recommended as applications are coded irrespective of browser you use. You could emulate Firefox 3 browser with HTMLUnitDriver as –

HtmlUnitDriver driver = new HtmlUnitDriver(BrowserVersion.FIREFOX_3);

Or you can inject desired capabilities while instantiating HTMLUnitDriver as –

HtmlUnitDriver driver = new HtmlUnitDriver(capabilities);

Question 156:

How do I use iPhone Driver?


You should start iPhone SDK and build iPhone driver. Down load iPhone development tools and provision profile. Now iPhone driver can connect through HTTP to the iphone simulator. You can also run simulator on another machine in your network and WebDriver could connect to it remotely.

Question 157:

Is it possible to convert Selenium IDE test to WebDriver test?


For now there is no formatter available to convert Selenium IDE tests to corresponding WebDriver tests, hence simple answer is No. Yes WebDriver style of code can be generated from Selenium IDE

Question 158:

Can WebDriver handle UntrustedSSLCertificates?


This feature is currently supported in Firefox browser and is awaiting implementation in IE and Chrome drivers.

Question 159:

Can I carry out multiple operations at once while using WebDriver?


You can use Builder pattern to achieve this. For example if you want to move an element from one place to another you can use this –

Actions builder = new Actions(driver);

Action dragAndDrop = builder.clickAndHold(element)





Question 160:

How do I simulate keyboard keys using WebDriver?


There is a KeyBoard interface which has three methods to support keyboard interaction –

  • sendKeys(CharSequence)- Sends character sequence
  • pressKey(Keys keyToPress) – Sends a key press without releasing it.
  • releaseKey(Keys keyToRelease) – Releases a modifier key

Question 161:

What about Mouse Interaction?


Mouse interface lets you carry out following operations –

  • click(WebElement element) – Clicks an element
  • doubleClick(WebElement element) – Double-clicks an element.
  • void mouseDown(WebElement element) – Holds down the left mouse button on an element.
  • mouseUp(WebElement element) – Releases the mouse button on an element.
  • mouseMove(WebElement element) – Moves element form current location to another element.
  • contextClick(WebElement element) – Performs a context-click (right click) on an element.

Question 162:

How does Android Webdriver works?


Android WebDriver uses Remote WebDriver. Client Side is test code and Server side is application installed on android emulator or actual device. Here client and server communicate using JSON wire protocol consisting of Rest requests.

Question 163:

What are the advantages of using Android WebDriver?


Android web driver runs on Android browser which is best real user interaction. It also uses native touch events to emulated user interaction.

But there are some drawbacks also like, it is slower than headless WebKit driver. XPath is not natively supported in Android web view.

Question 164:

Is there a built-in DSL (domain specific language) support available in WebDriver?


There is not, but you can easily build your own DSL, for example instead of using –


You can create a more composite method and use it –

public static void findElementAndType(WebDriver webDriver, String elementLocator, String testData) {



And now you just need to call method findElementAndType to do type operation.

Question 165:

What is grid2?


Grid2 is Selenium grid for Selenium 1 as well as WebDriver, This allows to –

  • Execute tests on parallel on different machines
  • Managing multiple environments from one point

Question 166:

How do I start hub and slaves machines in grid 2?


Navigate to you selenium server standalone jar download and execute following command –

java -jar selenium-server-standalone-.jar -role hub   And you start Slave machine by executing following command –   Java –jar selenium-server-.jar –role webdriver  -hub http://localhost:4444/grid/register -port 6666

Question 167:

And how do I run tests on grid?


You need to use the RemoteWebDriver and the DesiredCapabilities object to define browser, version and platform for testing. Create Targeted browser capabilities as –   DesiredCapabilities capability = DesiredCapabilities.firefox();   Now pass capabilities to Remote WebDriver object –   WebDriver driver = new RemoteWebDriver(new URL(“http://localhost:4444/wd/hub&#8221;), capability);

Following this, hub will take care of assigning tests to a slave machine

Question 168:

What parameters can be passed to grid2?


You can pass following parameters to grid 2 –

  • -port 4444 (default 4444)
  • -nodeTimeout (default 30) the timeout in seconds before the hub automatically releases a node that hasn’t received any requests for more than the specified number of seconds.
  • -maxConcurrent 5 (5 is default) The maximum number of browsers that can run in parallel on the node.

Selenium Tool Implementation Misc Questions

Question 169:

How do I implement data driven testing using Selenium?


Selenium, unlike others commercial tools does not have any direct support for data driven testing. Your programming language would help you achieving this. You can you jxl library in case of java to read and write data from excel file. You can also use Data Driven Capabilities of TestNG to do data driven testing.

Question 170:

What is equivalent to test step, test scenario and test suite in Selenium.


If you are using Java client driver of Selenium then TestNG test method could be considered equivalent to test step, a test tag could be considered as test scenario and a suite tag could be considered equivalent to a test suite.

Question 171:

How do I get attribute value of an element in Selenium?


You could use getAttribute method

With Selenium 1.0 –

String var = selenium.getAttribute(“css=input[name=’q’]@maxlength”);        System.out.println(var);

With Selenium 2.0 –

String var = webDriver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“input[name=’q’]”)).getAttribute(“maxlength”)        System.out.println(var);

Question 172:

How do I do database testing using Selenium?


Selenium does not support database testing but your language binding does. For example while using java client driver you can use java data base connectivity (jdbc) to establish connection to data base, fetch/write data to data base and doing data comparison with front end.

Question 173:

I completed test execution and now I want to email test report.


If you are using “ant” build tool then you can use “mail” task to deliver your test results. Similar capabilities are available in Continuous Build Integration tools like – Hudson.

Question 174:

How do I make my tests more comprehensible?


Selenium tests which are written as –“addForm:_ID74:_ID75:0:_ID79:0:box”);

Make it tough to understand the element which is being exercised upon.

Instead of hard coding element locator in tests you should externalize them. For example with java you can use properties file to contain element locators and then locator reference is given in test script. Following this approach previous test step would look as –;

And this is far more comprehensible.

Question 175:

Why should I use Page Object?


Page object is a design pattern which distinguishes the code carrying out operations on page and code which carries out tests (assertion/verification). While implementing page object you abstract functioning of a page or part of it in a dedicated “Classs” which is then used by test script to perform actions on page and reach a stage when actual test could be performed.

Advantage of using page object is the fact that if application lay out changes then you only need to modify the navigation part and test would function intact.



Google +





  1. AnonymousApril 8, 2012 at 5:47 PMReply
  2. #134 – Answer to Ajax handling is Explicit Wait,and not implicit. As Ajax elements may disappear after enforced wait time, while they may be captured and identified by Explicit wait within wait time limit and not only after wait time.
  3. AnonymousApril 12, 2012 at 1:23 PMReply
  4. I guess error in Foreach structure related to answer #73.
  5. bt deviantApril 27, 2012 at 1:00 AM
  6. Wow, really appreciate all the work that has been put into this. I have hit a wall with my grid, however and have a question that I hope someone can answer:

    I have my grid up and running on a headless Ubuntu server with 4 RC’s. I used Selenium IDE to record a suite and exported it as a JUnit 4 (Webdriver) that is sitting in the selenium folder on the Ubunut server.

Webdriver (Selenium ) Interview Questions and answers

Webdriver (Selenium ) Interview Questions and answers

Question 1: What is Selenium 2.0
Answer: Webdriver is open source automation tool for web application. WebDriver is designed to provide a simpler, more concise programming interface in addition to addressing some limitations in the Selenium-RC API.

Question 2: What is cost of webdriver, is this commercial or open source.
Answer: selenium  is open source and free of cost.

Question 3: how you specify browser configurations with Selenium 2.0?
Answer:  Following driver classes are used for browser configuration

  • AndroidDriver,
  • ChromeDriver,
  • EventFiringWebDriver,
  • FirefoxDriver,
  • HtmlUnitDriver,
  • InternetExplorerDriver,
  • IPhoneDriver,
  • IPhoneSimulatorDriver,
  • RemoteWebDriver

Question 4: How is Selenium 2.0 configuration different than Selenium 1.0?
Answer: In case of Selenium 1.0 you need Selenium jar file pertaining to one library for example in case of java you need java client driver and also Selenium server jar file. While with Selenium 2.0 you need language binding (i.e. java, C# etc) and Selenium server jar if you are using Remote Control or Remote WebDriver.

Question5: Can you show me one code example of setting Selenium 2.0?
Answer: below is example

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();


driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“#gb_2 > span.gbts”)).click();

driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“#gb_1 > span.gbts”)).click();

driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“#gb_8 > span.gbts”)).click();

driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“#gb_1 > span.gbts”)).click();
Question 6: Which web driver implementation is fastest?
Answer: HTMLUnitDriver. Simple reason is HTMLUnitDriver does not execute tests on browser but plain http request – response which is far quick than launching a browser and executing tests. But then you may like to execute tests on a real browser than something running behind the scenes

Question 7: What all different element locators are available with Selenium 2.0?
Answer: Selenium 2.0 uses same set of locators which are used by Selenium 1.0 – id, name, css, XPath but how Selenium 2.0 accesses them is different. In case of Selenium 1.0 you don’t have to specify a different method for each locator while in case of Selenium 2.0 there is a different method available to use a different element locator. Selenium 2.0 uses following method to access elements with id, name, css and XPath locator –




driver.findElement(By. className (“CalssName”));

driver.findElement(By. linkText (“LinkeText”));

driver.findElement(By. partialLinkText (“PartialLink”));

driver.findElement(By. tagName (“TanName”));

Question 8:  How do I submit a form using Selenium?

WebElement el  =  driver.findElement(“ElementID”));


Question 9: How to capture screen shot in Webdriver?


File file= ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);

FileUtils.copyFile(file, new File(“c:\\name.png”));

Question 10: How do I clear content of a text box in Selenium 2.0?


WebElement el  =  driver.findElement(“ElementID”));


Question 11:  How to execute java scripts function.


JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;

String title = (String) js.executeScript(“pass your java scripts”);

Question 12:  How to select a drop down value using Selenium2.0?

Answer: See point 16 in below post:

Click here for answer

Question 13: How to automate radio button in Selenium 2.0?


WebElement el = driver.findElement(“Radio button id”));

//to perform check operation

//verfiy to radio button is check it return true if selected else false


Question 14: How to capture element image using Selenium 2.0?

Answer: click link for answer:

Question 15: How to count total number of rows of a table using Selenium 2.0?


List {WebElement} rows = driver.findElements(By.className(“//table[@id=’tableID’]/tr”));

int totalRow = rows.size();

Question 16:  How to capture page title using Selenium 2.0?


String title =  driver.getTitle()

Question 17:  How to store page source using Selenium 2.0?


String pagesource = driver.getPageSource()

Question 18: How to store current url using selenium 2.0?


String currentURL  = driver.getCurrentUrl()

Question 19: How to assert text assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0?


WebElement el  =  driver.findElement(“ElementID”));

//get test from element and stored in text variable

String text = el.getText();

//assert text from expected

Assert.assertEquals(“Element Text”, text);

Question 20: How to get element attribute using Selenium 2.0?


WebElement el  =  driver.findElement(“ElementID”));

//get test from element and stored in text variable

String attributeValue = el. getAttribute(“AttributeName”) ;

Question 21: How to double click on element using selenium 2.0?


WebElement el  =  driver.findElement(“ElementID”));

Actions builder = new Actions(driver);


Question 22: How to perform drag and drop in selenium 2.0?


WebElement source  =  driver.findElement(“Source ElementID”));

WebElement destination  =  driver.findElement(“Taget ElementID”));

Actions builder = new Actions(driver);

builder.dragAndDrop(source, destination ).perform();

Question 23: How to maximize window using selenium 2.0?



Question 24: How to verify pdf content using selenium 2.0?

Answer: Go through below post:

click here for answer

Question25: How to capture video of running scripts in selenium 2.0?

Answer: Go below link:

Click here for answer

Question 26: How to verify response 200 code using selenium 2.0?

Answer: Go through below post:

Click here for answer

Question 27: How to verify image using selenium 2.0?

Answer: go through below post:

Click Here for answer

Question 28: How to handle http authentication in selenium 2.0?

Answer: go through below post:

Click here for answer

Question 29: Can we automate HTML 5 video using selenium 2.0?

Answer: Go through below post:

Click here for answer

Question 30:  What is different between findElement and findElements

Answer : go through below link:

Click here for answerl

Selenium Interview Questions

Ques 1) What are the annotations used in TestNG ?

Ans: @Test, @BeforeSuite, @AfterSuite, @BeforeTest, @AfterTest, @BeforeClass, @AfterClass, @BeforeMethod, @AfterMethod.

Ques 2) How do you read data from excel ?

Ques 3) What is the use of xpath ?

Ans- it is used to find the WebElement in web page. It is very useful to identify the dynamic web elements.

Ques 4) What are different types of locators ?

Ans- There are 8 types of locators and all are the static methods of the By class.,, By.tagName(), By.className(), By.linkText(), By.partialLinkText(), By.xpath, By.cssSelector().

Ques 5) What is the difference between Assert and Verify?

Ans- Assert- it is used to verify the result. If the test case fail then it will stop the execution of the test case there itself and move the control to other test case.

Verify- it is also used to verify the result. If the test case fail then it will not stop the execution of that test case.

Ques 6) What is the alternate way to click on login button?

Ans- use submit() method but it can be used only when attribute type=submit.

Ques 7) How do you verify if the checkbox/radio is checked or not ?

Ans- We can use isSelected() method.

Syntax –

If the return value of this method is true then it is checked else it is not.

Ques 8) How do you handle alert pop-up ?

Ans- To handle alert pop-ups, we need to 1st switch control to alert pop-ups then click on ok or cancle then move control back to main page.


Ques 9) How do you launch IE/chrome browser?

Ans- Before launching IE or Chrome browser we need to set the System property.

Ques 10) How to perform right click using WebDriver?

Ans- Use Actions class

Ques 11) How do perform drag and drop using WebDriver?

Ans- Use Action class

Ques 12) Give the example for method overload in WebDriver.

Ans- frame(string), frame(int), frame(WebElement).

Ques 13) How do you upload a file?

Ans- To upload a file we can use sendKeys() method.

Ques 14) How do you click on a menu item in a drop down menu?

Ans- If that menu has been created by using select tag then we can use the methods selectByValue() or selectByIndex() or selectByVisibleText(). These are the methods of the Select class.

If the menu has not been created by using the select tag then we can simply find the xpath of that element and click on that to select.

Ques 15) How do you simulate browser back and forward ?

Ques 16) How do you get the current page URL ?

Ques 17) What is the difference between ‘/’ and ‘//’ ?

Ans- //- it is used to search in the entire structure.

/- it is used to identify the immediate child.

Ques 18) What is the difference between findElement and findElements?

Ans- Both methods are abstract method of WebDriver interface and used to find the WebElement in a web page.

findElement() – it used to find the one web element. It return only one WebElement type.

findElements()- it used to find more than one web element. It return List of WebElements.

Ques 19) How do you achieve synchronization in WebDriver ?

Ans- We can use implicit wait.

Syntax- driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10,TimeUnit.SECONDS);

Here it will wait for 10sec if while execution driver did not find the element in the page immediately. This code will attach with each and every line of the script automatically. It is not required to write every time. Just write it once after opening the browser.

Ques 20) Write the code for Reading and Writing to Excel through Selenium ?

Ques 21) How to get typed text from a textbox ?

Ans- use getAttribute(“value”) method by passing arg as value.

Ques 22) What are the different exceptions you got when working with WebDriver ?

Ans- ElementNotVisibleException, ElementNotSelectableException, NoAlertPresentException, NoSuchAttributeException, NoSuchWindowException, TimeoutException, WebDriverException etc.

Ques 23) What are the languages supported by WebDriver ?

Ans- Python, Ruby, C# and Java are all supported directly by the development team. There are also webdriver implementations for PHP and Perl.

Ques 24) How do you clear the contents of a textbox in selenium ?

Ans- Use clear() method.

Ques 25) What is a Framework ?

Ans- A framework is set of automation guidelines which help in

Maintaining consistency of Testing, Improves test structuring, Minimum usage of code, Less Maintenance of code, Improve re-usability, Non Technical testers can be involved in code, Training period of using the tool can be reduced, Involves Data wherever appropriate.

There are five types of framework used in software automation testing:

1-Data Driven Automation Framework

2-Method Driven Automation Framework

3-Modular Automation Framework

4-Keyword Driven Automation Framework

5-Hybrid Automation Framework , its basically combination of different frameworks. (1+2+3).

Ques 26) What are the prerequisites to run selenium webdriver?

Ans- JDK, Eclipse, WebDriver(selenium standalone jar file), browser, application to be tested.

Ques 27) What are the advantages of selenium webdriver?

Ans- a) It supports with most of the browsers like Firefox, IE, Chrome, Safari, Opera etc.

b) It supports with most of the language like Java, Python, Ruby, C# etc.

b) Doesn’t require to start server before executing the test script.

c) It has actual core API which has binding in a range of languages.

d) It supports of moving mouse cursors.

e) It support to test iphone/Android applications.

Ques 28) What is WebDriverBackedSelenium ?

Ans- WebDriverBackedSelenium is a kind of class name where we can create an object for it as below:

The main use of this is when we want to write code using both WebDriver and Selenium RC , we must use above created object to use selenium commands.

Ques 29) How to invoke an application in webdriver ?

Ques 30) What is Selenium Grid ?

Ans- Selenium-Grid allows you to run your tests on different machines against different browsers in parallel. That is, running multiple tests at the same time against different machines, different browsers and operating systems. Essentially, Selenium-Grid support distributed test execution. It allows for running your tests in a distributed test execution environment.

Ques 31) How to get the number of frames on a page ?

Ques 32) How do you simulate scroll down action ?

Ans- Use java script to scroll down-

Ques 33) What is the command line we have to write inside a .bat file to execute a selenium project when we are using testng ?

Ans- java -cp bin;jars/* org.testng.TestNG testng.xml

Ques 34) Which is the package which is to be imported while working with WebDriver ?

Ans- org.openqa.selenium

Ques 35) How to check if an element is visible on the web page ?

Ans- use isDisplayed() method. The return type of the method is boolean. So if it return true then element is visible else not visible.

Ques 36) How to check if a button is enabled on the page ?

Ans- Use isEnabled() method. The return type of the method is boolean. So if it return true then button is enabled else not enabled.

Ques 37) How to check if a text is highlighted on the page ?

Ans- To identify weather color for a field is different or not-

Here if both color and back color different then that means that element is in different color.

Ques 38) How to check the checkbox or radio button is selected ?

Ans- Use isSelected() method to identify. The return type of the method is boolean. So if it return true then button is selected else not enabled.

Ques 39) How to get the title of the page ?

Ans- Use getTitle() method.

Ques 40) How do u get the width of the textbox ?

Ques 41) How do u get the attribute of the web element ?

Ans- driver.getElement(By.tagName(“img”)).getAttribute(“src”) will give you the src attribute of this tag. Similarly, you can get the values of attributes such as title, alt etc.

Similarly you can get CSS properties of any tag by using getCssValue(“some propety name”).

Ques 42) How to check whether a text is underlined or not ?

Ques 43) How to change the URL on a webpage using selenium web driver ?

Ques 44) How to hover the mouse on an element ?

Ques 45) What is the use of getOptions() method ?

Ans- getOptions() is used to get the selected option from the dropdown list.

Ques 46) What is the use of deSelectAll() method ?

Ans- It is used to deselect all the options which have been selected from the dropdown list.

Ques 47) Is WebElement an interface or a class ?

Ans- WebDriver is an Interface.

Ques 48) FirefoxDriver is class or an interface and from where is it inherited ?

Ans- FirefoxDriver is a class. It implements all the methods of WebDriver interface.

Ques 49) Which is the super interface of webdriver ?

Ans- SearchContext.

Ques 50) What is the difference b/w close() and quit()?

Ans- close() – it will close the browser where the control is.

quit() – it will close all the browsers opened by WebDriver.

Ques 1) Can we enter text without using sendKeys() ?

Ans – Yes we can enter text without using sendKeys() method. We have to use combination of javascript and wrapper classes with WebDriver extension class, check the below code-

call the above method in the test script and pass the text field attribute and pass the text you want to enter.

Ques 2) There is a scenario whenever “Assert.assertEquals()” function fails automatically it has to take screenshot. How can you achieve this ?

Ans- By using EventFiringWebDriver.

Ques 3) How do you handle https website in selenium ?

Ans- By changing the setting of FirefoxProfile.

Ques 4) How to login into any site if its showing any authetication popup for user name and pass ?

Ans – pass the username and password with url.

Ques 5) What is the name of Headless browser.

Ans- HtmlUnitDriver.

Ques 6) Open a browser in memory means whenever it will try to open a browser the browser page must not come and can perform the operation internally.

Ans- use HtmlUnitDriver.


Ques 7) What are the benefits of using TestNG ?


a) TestNG allows us to execute of test cases based on group.

b) In TestNG Annotations are easy to understand.

c) Parallel execution of Selenium test cases is possible in TestNG.

d) Three kinds of report generated

e) Order of execution can be changed

f) Failed test cases can be executed

g) Without having main function we can execute the test method.

h) An xml file can be generated to execute the entire test suite. In that xml file we can   rearrange our execution order and we can also skip the execution of particular test case.

Ques 8) How do you take screen shot without using EventFiringWebDriver ?


Ques 9) How do you send ENTER/TAB keys in WebDriver ?

Ans- use click() or submit() [submit() can be used only when type=’submit’]) method for ENTER. Or use Actions class to press keys.

For Enter-

For Tab-

where act is Actions class type. ( Actions act = new Actions(driver); )

Ques 10) What is Datadriven framework & Keyword Driven ?

Ans- Datadriven framework- In this Framework , while Test case logic resides in Test Scripts, the Test Data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts.Test Data is read from the external files (Excel File) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used both for Input values and for Verification values.

Keyword Driven framework- The Keyword-Driven or Table-Driven framework requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation tool used to execute them . Tests can be designed with or without the Application. In a keyword-driven test, the functionality of the application-under-test is documented in a table as well as in step-by-step instructions for each test.

Ques 11) While explaining the framework, what are points which should be covered ?


a) What is the frame work.

b) Which frame work you are using.

c) Why This Frame work.

d) Architecture.

e) Explanation of every component of frame work.

f) Process followed in frame work.

g) How & when u execute the frame work.

h) Code (u must write code and explain).

i) Result and reporting .

j) You should be able to explain it for 20 Minutes.

Ques 12) How to switch back from a frame ?

Ans- use method defaultContent().

Ques 13) How to type text in a new line inside a text area ?

Ans- Use \n for new line.

it will type in text box as-



Ques 14) What is the use of AutoIt tool ?

Ans- Some times while doing testing with selenium, we get stuck by some interruptions like a window based pop up. But selenium fails to handle this as it has support for only web based application. To overcome this problem we need to use AutoIT along with selenium script. AutoIT is a third party tool to handle window based applications. The scripting language used is in VBScript.

Ques 15) How to perform double click using WebDriver ?

Ans- use doubleClick() method.

Ques 16) How to press Shift+Tab ?


Ques 17) What is the use of contextClick() ?

Ans- It is used to right click.

Ques 18) What is the difference b/w getWindowHandles() and getWindowHandle() ?

Ans- getWindowHandles()- is used to get the address of all the open browser and its return type is Iterator<String>.

getWindowHandle()- is used to get the address of the current browser where the conrol is and return type is String.

Ques 19) How do you accommodate project specific methods in your framework ?

Ans- 1st go through all the manual test cases and identify the steps which are repeating. Note down such steps and make them as methods and write into ProjectSpecificLibrary.

Ques 20) What are different components of your framework ?

Ans- Library- Assertion, ConfigLibrary, GenericLibrary, ProjectSpecificLibrary, Modules.

Drivers folder, Jars folder, excel file.

Ques 21) What are the browsers supported by Selenium IDE ?

Ans- Mozilla FireFox only. Its an Firefox add on.

Ques 22) What are the limitations of Selenium IDE ?


a) It does not supports looping or conditional statements. Tester has to use native languages to write logic in the test case.

b) It does not supports test reporting, you have to use selenium RC with some external reporting plugin like TestNG or JUint to get test execution report.

c) Error handling is also not supported depending on the native language for this.

d) Only support in Mozilla FireFox only. Its an Firefox add on.

Ques 23) How to check all checkboxes in a page ?


Ques 24) Count the number of links in a page.

Ans- use the locator By.tagName and find the elements for the tag //a then use loop to count the number of elements found.

Ques 25) How do you identify the Xpath of element on your browser ?

And- to find the xpath , we use Firebug addons on firefox browser and to identify the xpath written we use Firepath addons.

Ques 26) What is Selenium Webdriver ?

Ans- WebDriver is the name of the key interface against which tests should be written in Java. All the methods of WebDriver have been implementated by RemoteWebDriver.

Ques 27) What is Selenium IDE ?

Ans- Selenium IDE is a complete integrated development environment (IDE) for Selenium tests. It is implemented as a Firefox Add-On, and allows recording, editing, and debugging tests. It was previously known as Selenium Recorder.

Scripts may be automatically recorded and edited manually providing autocompletion support and the ability to move commands around quickly.

Scripts are recorded in Selenese, a special test scripting language for Selenium. Selenese provides commands for performing actions in a browser (click a link, select an option), and for retrieving data from the resulting pages.

Ques 28) What are the flavors of selenium ?

Ans- selenium IDE, selenium RC, Selenium WebDriver and Selenium Grid.

Ques 29) What is selenium ?

Ans- Its an open source Web Automation Tool. It supports all types of web browsers. Despite being open source its actively developed and supported.

Ques 30) Advantages of selenium over other tools ?


a) Its free of cost,

b) it supports many languages like Java, C#, Ruby, Python etc.,

c) it allows simple and powerful DOM-level testing etc.

Ques 31) What is main difference between RC and webdriver ?

Ans- Selenium RC injects javascript function into browsers when the web page is loaded.

Selenium WebDriver drives the browser using browser’s built-in support.

Ques 32) Why you choose webdriver over RC ?


a) Native automation faster and a little less prone to error and browser configuration,

b) Does not Requires Selenium-RC Server to be running

c) Access to headless HTMLUnitDriver can allow really fast tests

d) Great API etc.

Ques 33) Which one is better xpath or CSS ?

Ans- xpath.

Ques 34) How will you handle dynamic elements ?

Ans- By writing relative xpath.

Ques 35) what are the different assertions or check points used in your script ?

Ans- The common types of validations are:

a) Is the page title as expected,

b) Validations against an element on the page,

c) Does text exist on the page,

d) Does a javascript call return an expected value.

Ques 36) What is actions class in WebDriver ?

Ans- Actions class is used to control the actions of mouse.

Ques 37) What is the difference between @BeforeMethod and @BeforeClass ?

Ans- @BeforeMethod- this will execute before every @Test method.

@BeforeClass- this will execute before every class.

Ques 38) What are the different attributes for @Test annotation ?

Ans- alwaysRun, dataProvider, dependsOnMethods, enabled, expectedExceptions, timeOut etc.

Ques 39) Can we run group of test cases using TestNG ?

Ans- yes.

Ques 40) What is object repository ?

Ans- An object repository is a very essential entity in any UI automation tool. A repository allows a tester to store all the objects that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than letting them be scattered all over the test scripts. The concept of an object repository is not tied to WET alone. It can be used for any UI test automation. In fact, the original reason why the concept of object repositories were introduced was for a framework required by QTP.

Ques 41) What are oops concepts ?


a) Encapsulation,

b) Abstraction,

c) Polymorphism,

d) Inheritance.

Ques 42) What is inheritance ?

Ans- Inherit the feature of any class by making some relations between the class/interface is known as inheritance.

Ques 43) What is difference between overload and override ?

Ans- The methods by passing different arguments list/type is known as overloading of methods while having the same method signature with different method body is known as method overriding.

Ques 44) Does java supports multiple inheritance ?

Ans- Interface supports multiple inheritance but class does not support.

Ques 45) Write a java program for swapping of two numbers ?


Ques 46) Write a java program for factorial of a given number.


Ques 47) What are the different access specifiers in Java?

Ans- private, default, protected and public.

Ques 48) Why do we go for automation testing ?

Ans- Reasons-

a) Manual testing of all work flows, all fields, all negative scenarios is time and cost consuming.

b) It is difficult to test for multi lingual sites manually.

c) Automation does not require human intervention. We can run automated test unattended(Overnight).

d) Automation increases speed of test execution.

e) Automation helps increase test coverage.

f) Manual testing can become boring and hence error prone.

Ques 49) What is testing strategy ?

Ans- A Test Strategy document is a high level document and normally developed by project manager. This document defines “Software Testing Approach” to achieve testing objectives. The Test Strategy is normally derived from the Business Requirement Specification document.

Ques 50) ) write a code to make use of assert if my username is incorrect.


50 Most Popularly Asked Selenium Interview Questions and Answers

Q #1) What is Automation Testing?

Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves use to a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

Q #2) What are the benefits of Automation Testing?

Benefits of Automation testing are:

  1. Supports execution of repeated test cases
  2. Aids in testing a large test matrix
  3. Enables parallel execution
  4. Encourages unattended execution
  5. Improves accuracy thereby reducing human generated errors
  6. Saves time and money

Q #3) Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?


  1. is free and open source
  2. have a large user base and helping communities
  3. have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
  4. have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
  5. supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
  6. has fresh and regular repository developments
  7. supports distributed testing

Q #4) What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?

Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.

Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.

The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:

  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows user to create test scripts in a desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
  • Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
  • Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.

Q #5) What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?

Selenium supports the following types of testing:

  1. Functional Testing
  2. Regression Testing

Q #6) What are the limitations of Selenium?

Following are the limitations of Selenium:

  • Selenium supports testing of only web based applications
  • Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Captcha and Bar code readers cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Reports can only be generated using third party tools like TestNG or Junit.
  • As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support though the user can find numerous helping communities.
  • User is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.

Q #7) What is the difference between Selenium IDE, Selenium RC and WebDriver?

Q #8) When should I use Selenium IDE?

Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature makes it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.

Q #9) What is Selenese?

Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.

Q #10) What are the different types of locators in Selenium?

Locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:

  • ID
  • ClassName
  • Name
  • TagName
  • LinkText
  • PartialLinkText
  • Xpath
  • CSS Selector
  • DOM

Q #11) What is difference between assert and verify commands?

Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.

Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halts i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.

Q #12) What is an Xpath?

Xpath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, Xpath can be used to locate HTML elements.

The fundamental behind locating elements using Xpath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.

Q #13) What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?

Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.

Q #14) What is Same origin policy and how it can be handled?

The problem of same origin policy disallows to access the DOM of a document from an origin that is different from the origin we are trying to access the document.

Origin is a sequential combination of scheme, host and port of the URL. For example, for a URL http://, the origin is a combination of http,, 80 correspondingly.

Thus the Selenium Core (JavaScript Program) cannot access the elements from an origin that is different from where it was launched. For Example, if I have launched the JavaScript Program from “”, then I would be able to access the pages within the same domain such as “” or “”. The other domains like, would no more be accessible.

So, In order to handle same origin policy, Selenium Remote Control was introduced.

Q #15) When should I use Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

Q #16) What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?

Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.

Q #17) Which is the latest Selenium tool?


Q #18) How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?

The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

Q #19) What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?

The different drivers available in WebDriver are:

  • FirefoxDriver
  • InternetExplorerDriver
  • ChromeDriver
  • SafariDriver
  • OperaDriver
  • AndroidDriver
  • IPhoneDriver
  • HtmlUnitDriver

Q #20) What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?

There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:

  1. Implicit Wait
  2. Explicit Wait

Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.

Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.

Q #21) How to type in a textbox using Selenium?

User can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the textbox.

WebElement username = drv.findElement(“Email”));
// entering username

Q #22) How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?

WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.

  1. isDisplayed()
  2. isSelected()
  3. isEnabled()


boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean buttonSelected = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();

Q #23) How can we get a text of a web element?

Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.

String Text = driver.findElement(“Text”)).getText();

Q #24) How to select value in a dropdown?

Value in the drop down can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.


Select selectByValue = newSelect(driver.findElement(“SelectID_One”)));

Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(“SelectID_Two”)));

Select selectByIndex = newSelect(driver.findElement(“SelectID_Three”)));

Q #25) What are the different types of navigation commands?

Following are the navigation commands:
navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.

Sample code:

navigate().forward() – This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.

Sample code:

navigate().refresh() – This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.

Sample code:

navigate().to() – This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.

Sample code:

Q #26) How to click on a hyper link using linkText?


The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page.

The above mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command.


The above command find the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.

Q #27) How to handle frame in WebDriver?

An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document with in the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.

Select iframe by id
driver.switchTo().frame(ID of the frame);

Locating iframe using tagName

Locating iframe using index



frame(Name of Frame)
driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);

frame(WebElement element)
Select Parent Window

Q #28) When do we use findElement() and findElements()?

findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.


WebElement element =driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.

List <WebElement> elementList =driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

Q #29) How to find more than one web element in the list?

At times, we may come across elements of same type like multiple hyperlinks, images etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.

Sample Code

// Storing the list
List <WebElement> elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//div[@id='example']//ul//li"));
// Fetching the size of the list
int listSize = elementList.size();
for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)
// Clicking on each service provider link
// Navigating back to the previous page that stores link to service providers

Q #30) What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit command?

close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

Q #31) Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?

Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. Therefore, windows pop up cannot be handled using Selenium.

Q #32) How can we handle web based pop up?

WebDriver offers the users with a very efficient way to handle these pop ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be using along with the Alert interface.

  • void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
  • void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
  • String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed on the alert box.
  • void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.

// accepting javascript alert
                Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

Q #33) How can we handle windows based pop up?

Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing, that means, it doesn’t support testing of windows based applications. However Selenium alone can’t help the situation but along with some third party intervention, this problem can be overcome. There are several third party tools available for handling window based pop ups along with the selenium like AutoIT, Robot class etc.

Q #34) How to assert title of the web page?

//verify the title of the web page
assertTrue(“The title of the window is incorrect.”,driver.getTitle().equals(“Title of the page”));

Q #35) How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?

WebDriver offers a wide range of interaction utilities that the user can exploit to automate mouse and keyboard events. Action Interface is one such utility which simulates the single user interactions.

Thus, In the following scenario, we have used Action Interface to mouse hover on a drop down which then opens a list of options.

Sample Code:

// Instantiating Action Interface
Actions actions=new Actions(driver);
// howering on the dropdown
actions.moveToElement(driver.findElement("id of the dropdown"))).perform();
// Clicking on one of the items in the list options
WebElement subLinkOption=driver.findElement("id of the sub link"));;

Q #36) How to retrieve css properties of an element?

The values of the css properties can be retrieved using a get() method:

driver.findElement(“id“)).getCssValue(“name of css attribute”);

Q #37) How to capture screenshot in WebDriver?

import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;
public class CaptureScreenshot {
       WebDriver driver;
       public void setUp() throws Exception {
            driver = new FirefoxDriver();
     public void tearDown() throws Exception {
     public void test() throws IOException {
            // Code to capture the screenshot
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
            // Code to copy the screenshot in the desired location
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("C:\\CaptureScreenshot\\google.jpg"));                  

Q #38) What is Junit?

Junit is a unit testing framework introduced by Apache. Junit is based on Java.

Q #39) What are Junit annotations?

Following are the Junit Annotations:

  • @Test: Annotation lets the system know that the method annotated as @Test is a test method. There can be multiple test methods in a single test script.
  • @Before: Method annotated as @Before lets the system know that this method shall be executed every time before each of the test method.
  • @After: Method annotated as @After lets the system know that this method shall be executed every time after each of the test method.
  • @BeforeClass: Method annotated as @BeforeClass lets the system know that this method shall be executed once before any of the test method.
  • @AfterClass: Method annotated as @AfterClass lets the system know that this method shall be executed once after any of the test method.
  • @Ignore: Method annotated as @Ignore lets the system know that this method shall not be executed.

Q #40) What is TestNG and how is it better than Junit?

TestNG is an advance framework designed in a way to leverage the benefits by both the developers and testers. With the commencement of the frameworks, JUnit gained an enormous popularity across the Java applications, Java developers and Java testers with remarkably increasing the code quality. Despite being easy to use and straightforward, JUnit has its own limitations which give rise to the need of bringing TestNG into the picture. TestNG is an open source framework which is distributed under the Apache software License and is readily available for download.

TestNG with WebDriver provides an efficient and effective test result format that can in turn be shared with the stake holders to have a glimpse on the product’s/application’s health thereby eliminating the drawback of WebDriver’s incapability to generate test reports. TestNG has an inbuilt exception handling mechanism which lets the program to run without terminating unexpectedly.

There are various advantages that make TestNG superior to JUnit. Some of them are:

  • Added advance and easy annotations
  • Execution patterns can set
  • Concurrent execution of test scripts
  • Test case dependencies can be set

Q #41) How to set test case priority in TestNG?

Setting Priority in TestNG

Code Snippet

package TestNG;
import org.testng.annotations.*;
public class SettingPriority {
      public void method1() {   
      public void method2() {  
      public void method3() {   

Test Execution Sequence:

  1. Method1
  2. Method2
  3. Method3

Q #42) What is a framework?

Framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.

Q #43) What are the advantages of Automation framework?

Advantage of Test Automation framework

  • Reusability of code
  • Maximum coverage
  • Recovery scenario
  • Low cost maintenance
  • Minimal manual intervention
  • Easy Reporting

Q #44) What are the different types of frameworks?

Below are the different types of frameworks:

  1. Module Based Testing Framework: The framework divides the entire “Application Under Test” into number of logical and isolated modules. For each module, we create a separate and independent test script. Thus, when these test scripts taken together builds a larger test script representing more than one module.
  2. Library Architecture Testing Framework: The basic fundamental behind the framework is to determine the common steps and group them into functions under a library and call those functions in the test scripts whenever required.
  3. Data Driven Testing Framework: Data Driven Testing Framework helps the user segregate the test script logic and the test data from each other. It lets the user store the test data into an external database. The data is conventionally stored in “Key-Value” pairs. Thus, the key can be used to access and populate the data within the test scripts.
  4. Keyword Driven Testing Framework: The Keyword driven testing framework is an extension to Data driven Testing Framework in a sense that it not only segregates the test data from the scripts, it also keeps the certain set of code belonging to the test script into an external data file.
  5. Hybrid Testing Framework: Hybrid Testing Framework is a combination of more than one above mentioned frameworks. The best thing about such a setup is that it leverages the benefits of all kinds of associated frameworks.
  6. Behavior Driven Development Framework: Behavior Driven Development framework allows automation of functional validations in easily readable and understandable format to Business Analysts, Developers, Testers, etc.

Q #45) How can I read test data from excels?

Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API.See detailed tutorial here.

Q #46) What is the difference between POI and jxl jar?

# JXL jar POI jar
1 JXL supports “.xls” format i.e. binary based format. JXL doesn’t support Excel 2007 and “.xlsx” format i.e. XML based format POI jar supports all of these formats
2 JXL API was last updated in the year 2009 POI is regularly updated and released
3 The JXL documentation is not as comprehensive as that of POI POI has a well prepared and highly comprehensive documentation
4 JXL API doesn’t support rich text formatting POI API supports rich text formatting
5 JXL API is faster than POI API POI API is slower than JXL API

Q #47) What is the difference between Selenium and QTP?

Feature Selenium Quick Test Professional (QTP)
Browser Compatibility Selenium supports almost all the popular browsers like Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Opera etc QTP supports Internet Explorer, Firefox and Chrome. QTP only supports Windows Operating System
Distribution Selenium is distributed as an open source tool and is freely available QTP is distributed as a licensed tool and is commercialized
Application under Test Selenium supports testing of only web based applications QTP supports testing of both the web based application and windows based application
Object Repository Object Repository needs to be created as a separate entity QTP automatically creates and maintains Object Repository
Language Support Selenium supports multiple programming languages like Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Perl etc QTP supports only VB Script
Vendor Support As Selenium is a free tool, user would not get the vendor’s support in troubleshooting issues Users can easily get the vendor’s support in case of any issue

Q #48) Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?

WebDriver cannot test Mobile applications. WebDriver is a web based testing tool, therefore applications on the mobile browsers can be tested.

Q #49) Can captcha be automated?

No, captcha and bar code reader cannot be automated.

Q #50) What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?

Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Thus, whenever the element is required within the script, the locator value can be populated from the Object Repository. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location instead of hard coding them within the scripts.

In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.

That’s all for now.

Hope in this article you will find answers to most frequently asked Selenium and WebDriver Interview questions. The answers provided here are also helpful for understanding the Selenium basics and advanced WebDriver topics.